By George F. Chadwick
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Additional resources for A Systems View of Planning. Towards a Theory of the Urban and Regional Planning Process
Assuming 40 double moves per game, the master learns one move every 14 seconds, which is enough to carry on a sophisticated strategy with a low cumulative error rate. If we take 3 bits per move, the player takes in about 0-2 bits per second for several hours, and makes purposeful use of it (Raisbeck, 1964). In piano playing the rate of transmission of expert pianists has been found to be about 22 bits per second, whilst the maximum rate of impromptu speaking is said to be about 26 bits per second, and the transmission rate of a person able to do "lightning" mental arithmetic computation is about 24 bits per second (Quastler and Wulff, c.
3 . T h e man-nature system: an alternative presentation. specific kinds of conduct by man, and fourthly leading man to attempt modification of nature. Within this broad cycle there are, of course, many deeper complexities, many sub-systemic subtleties, but this simple diagram may be regarded as expressing adequately the principal features of the whole man-nature system: all that follows hangs on this fundamental framework. REFERENCES A C K O F F , RUSSELL L . ( 1 9 5 8 ) Towards a behavioral theory of communication, Management Science, Vol.
One of the main distinguishing features betweeen systems is that "highlevel" systems are characterised by information-flow between components, rather than energy flow, so that : "a minute amount of structured energy or matter from one component of a higher system is able to 'trigger' selectively a large amount of activity or behaviour in other components in the system, at the same time overcoming limitations of temporal and spatial proximity as well as availability of energy. The components of systems thus become more autonomous in certain respects while still maintaining intimate and more intricate interrelation with one another.
A Systems View of Planning. Towards a Theory of the Urban and Regional Planning Process by George F. Chadwick